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 ALL USEFULL COMMANDS IN WINODOWS OPERATING SYSTEM

-BY SUNILKUMAR CHOUDARI

While the commands in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP are called CMD commands or Command Prompt commands, the commands in Windows 98/95 and MS-DOS are called DOS( disk operating system) commands. In this article, we have listed the most commonly used commands in the Windows operating systemsBut before we move further, we will see how to open Command Prompt program in Windows.This can be done in four ways                               :Method 1: Open the program in Start MenuClick the lower-left Start button to open the Start Menu, type cmd in the empty box and tap Command Prompt in the results.Method 2: Turn on Command Prompt by search.

Tap the Search button on the taskbar, type cmd in the search box and choose Command Prompt on the top.Method 3: Open Command Prompt from Quick Access Menu.Press Windows+X, or right-click the bottom-left corner to open the menu, and then select Command Prompt on it.Method 4: Open the app through Run.Open the Run dialog using Windows+R hotkeys, enter cmd and tap OK.

Command
Description
appendAllows programs to open data files in specified directories as if they were located in the current directory.
assocDisplays or changes the file type associated with a particular file extension.
atSchedules commands and other programs to run at a specific date and time.
atmadmDisplays connection information of the ATM adapter.
attribChanges the attributes of a single file or a directory.
AuditpolDisplays information about or performs functions to manipulate audit policies.
bcdbootConfigures the boot files on a PC or device to run the Windows operating system and to create a new system BCD store.
bcdeditUsed to view or make changes to Boot Configuration Data.
bdehdcfgUsed to prepare a hard drive for BitLocker Drive Encryption.
bitsadminUsed to create, download or upload jobs and monitor their progress.
bootcfgUsed to build, modify, or view the contents of the boot.ini file.
bootsectUpdates the master boot code for hard disk partitions to switch between BOOTMGR and NTLDR.
breakSets or clears extended CTRL+C checking on DOS systems.
caclsDisplays or changes access of the security descriptors on folders and files.
callUsed to run a script or batch program from within another script or batch program.
cdAlso known as chdir, is used to change the current working drive and/or directory in operating systems.
certreqUsed to perform various certification authority (CA) certificate requests, such as submit a request, retrieve a response, create a new request, accept, sign, policy, sign and enrol.
certutilUsed to dump and display certification authority (CA) configuration information,  configure Certificate Services, backup and restore CA components, and verify certificates, key pairs, and certificate chains.
changeChanges various terminal server settings like install modes, COM port mappings, and logons.
chcpDisplays or configures the active code page number.
chdirUsed to display the drive letter and folder that you are currently in.
checknetisolationUsed to test apps that require network capabilities.
chglogonEnables or disables logons from client sessions on an RD Session Host (Remote Desktop Session Host) server, or displays current logon status.
chgportCan be used to display or change COM port mappings to be compatible with MS-DOS applications.
chgusrUsed to change the install mode for the RD Session Host server.
chkdskVerifies the file system integrity of a volume and fixes logical file system errors.
chkntfsUsed to display or modify the checking of the disk drive using NTFS at boot time.
choiceAllows batch files to prompt the user to select one item from a set of single-character choices and return the value of that choice to the program.
cipherUsed to encrypt or decrypt files and folders on NTFS drives.
clipCopies the result of any command (stdin) to the clipboard in Windows.
clsUsed to clear the screen or console window of all previously entered commands and any output generated by them.
cmdStarts a new instance of the cmd.exe command interpreter.
cmdkeyUsed to create, list and delete stored user names or credentials.
cmstpUsed to install or uninstall a Connection Manager service profile.
colorChanges the colors of the text and background within the Command Prompt window.
commandStarts a new instance of the command.com command interpreter.
compPerforms a binary comparison of two set of files or multiple files and shows the differences between them.
compactDisplays and changes the compression state of files or directories on NTFS partitions.
convertUsed to convert volumes using the FAT or FAT32 formatted file systems to NTFS.
copyCopies one or more files from one directory to another.
cscriptProvides command-line options for setting and executing script properties via Microsoft Script Host.
cttyUsed to change the default input and output devices for the system.
dateUsed to show or change the current date.
driveSpaceInitially known as DoubleSpace can be used to create or configure DoubleSpace compressed drives.
debugStarts Debug, a command line application used to test and edit programs.
defragUsed to defragment a drive you specify.
delUsed to delete one or more files.
deltreeUsed to delete a directory and all the files and subdirectories within it.
dirDisplays a list of files and folders contained inside the folder that you are currently working in.
diskcompUsed to compare contents of two floppy disks.
diskcopyCopies the entire contents of one floppy disk to another.
diskpartPrevents creating multi-partition layout for removable media such as flash drives and also used for partitioning internal hard drives..
diskperfUsed to remotely enable or disable physical or logical disk performance counters on computers running Windows 2000.
diskraidStarts the DiskRAID command-line tool that allows to configure and manage redundant array of independent (or inexpensive) disks (RAID) storage subsystems.
dismStarts the Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) tool.
dispdiagUsed to output a log of information about the display system.
djoinUsed to create a new computer account in a domain.
doskeyUsed to edit command lines, create macros, and recall previously entered commands.
dosshellStarts DOS Shell, a graphical file management tool for MS-DOS.
dosxUsed to start  DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI), a special mode designed to give MS-DOS applications access to more than the normally allowed 640 KB.
driverqueryDisplays a list of all installed device drivers and their properties.
drvspaceUsed to create or configure DriveSpace compressed drives.
echoUsed in shell scripts and batch files to output status text to the screen or a file and also to turn the echoing feature on or off.
editStarts the MS-DOS Editor tool that is used to create and modify text files.
edlinStarts the Edlin tool that is used to create and modify text files from the command line.
emm386Used to give MS-DOS access to more than 640 KB of memory.
endlocalEnds localization of environment changes inside a batch or script file, restoring environment variables to their values before the matching setlocal command.
eraseUsed to delete one or more files.
esentutlProvides database utilities for the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) for Windows Vista.
eventcreateCreates a custom event in an event log.
eventtriggersDisplays and configures event triggers on local or remote machines.
exe2binConverts a file of the EXE file type (executable file) to a binary file.
exitUsed to end the cmd.exe (Windows) or command.com (MS-DOS) session that you’re currently working in.
expandUsed to extract the files and folders contained in Microsoft Cabinet (CAB) files.
extrac32This command is actually a CAB extraction program for use by Internet Explorer but can be used to extract any Microsoft Cabinet file.
extractUsed to extract the files and folders contained in Microsoft Cabinet (CAB) files.
fasthelpThis command provides more detailed information on any of the other MS-DOS commands.
fastopenUsed to add a program’s hard drive location to a special list stored in memory.
fcUsed to compare two individual or sets of files and then show the differences between them.
fdiskUsed to create, manage, and delete hard drive partitions.
findUsed to search for a specified text string in one or more files.
findstrUsed to find specific text string patterns in one or more files.
fingerUsed to find information about computer users.
fltmcUsed to load, unload, list, and otherwise manage Filter drivers.
fondueThe fondue (Features on Demand User Experience) tool is used to install any of the several optional Windows features from the command line.
forUsed to run a specified command for each file in a set of files.
forcedosUsed to start the specified program in the MS-DOS subsystem.
forfilesSelects one or more files and runs a command on them.
formatUsed to format a drive in the file system that you specify.
fsutilPerforms tasks that are related to file allocation table (FAT) and NTFS file system, such as managing reparse points and sparse files, dismounting a volume, and extending a volume.
ftpTransfers files to and from another computer.
ftypeDefines a default program to open a specified file type.
getmacUsed to display the Media Access Control (MAC) address of all the network adapters in the computer.
gotoUsed in a batch or script file to direct the command process to a labelled line in the script.
gpresultUsed to display group policy settings and resultant set of policy for a user.
gpupdateRefreshes local and Active Directory-based Group Policy settings, including security settings.
graftablUsed to enable the ability of Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode.
graphicsUsed to load a program that can print graphics.
helpProvides help information for Windows commands.
hostnameDisplays the host name portion of the full computer name of the computer.
hwrcompUsed to compile custom dictionaries for handwriting recognition.
hwrregUsed to install a previously compiled custom dictionary for handwriting recognition.
icaclsDisplay, modify, backup, or restore ACLs for files and directories.
ifPerforms conditional functions in batch programs.
interlnkConnects two computers via a serial or parallel connection to share files and printers.
intersvrStarts interlnk server and to copy interlnk files from one computer to another.
ipconfigDisplays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and can modify Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.
ipxrouteUsed to display and change information about IPX routing tables.
irftpUsed to transmit files over an infrared link.
iscsicliStarts the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator, used to manage iSCSI.
kb16Used to support MS-DOS files that need to configure a keyboard for a specific language.
keybUsed to configure a keyboard for a specific language.
klistUsed to list service tickets of Kerberos.
ksetupUsed to configure connections to a Kerberos server.
ktmutilStarts the Kernel Transaction Manager utility.
labelUsed to manage the volume label of a disk.
lhShorthand version of the loadhigh command.
licensingdiagUsed to generate a text-based log and other data files that contain product activation and other Windows licensing information.
loadfixUsed to load the specified program in the first 64K of memory and then runs the program.
loadhighUsed to load a program into high memory and is usually used from within the autoexec.bat file.
lockUsed to lock a drive, enabling direct disk access for a program.
lodctrThis is used to update registry values related to performance counters.
logmanUsed to create and manage Event Trace Session and Performance logs.
logoffUsed to terminate a session.
lpqDisplays the status of a print queue on a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD).
lprUsed to send a file to a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD).
makecabUsed to create .cab files.
Manage-bdeUsed to configure BitLocker Drive Encryption from the command line.
MdShorthand version of the mkdir command.
MemShows information about used and free memory areas and programs that are currently loaded into memory in the MS-DOS subsystem.
MemmakerUsed to start MemMaker, a memory optimization tool.
MkdirUsed to create a new folder.
MklinkCreates a symbolic link.
ModeUsed to configure system devices, most often COM and LPT ports.
MofcompThis command properly displays the data within a Managed Object Format (MOF) file.
MoreUsed to display the information contained in a text file.
MountUsed to mount Network File System (NFS) network shares.
MountvolUsed to display, create, or remove  volume mount points.
MoveUsed to move one or files from one folder to another.
MrinfoUsed to provide information about a router’s interfaces and neighbors.
MsavThis command starts Microsoft Antivirus.
MsbackupThis command starts Microsoft Backup, a tool used to back up and restore one or more files.
MscdexUsed to provide CD-ROM access to MS-DOS.
MsdStarts Microsoft Diagnostics.
MsgUsed to send a message to a user.
MsiexecUsed to start Windows Installer, a tool used to install and configure software.
MuiunattendThis command starts the Multilanguage User Interface unattended setup process.
NbtstatThis command is used to show TCP/IP information and other statistical information about a remote computer.
NetUsed to display, configure, and correct a wide variety of network settings.
Net1Used to display, configure, and correct a wide variety of network settings.
NetcfgUsed to install the Windows Preinstallation Environment (WinPE),
NetshUsed to start Network Shell, a command-line utility used to manage the network configuration of the local, or a remote, computer.
NetstatThis command is most commonly used to display all open network connections and listening ports.
NfsadminThis command is used to manage Server for NFS or Client for NFS from the command line.
NlsfuncUsed to load information specific to a particular country or region.
NltestUsed to test secure channels between Windows computers in a domain and between domain controllers that are trusting other domains.
NslookupThe command is most commonly used to display the hostname of an entered IP address.
NtbackupUsed to perform various backup functions from the Command.
NtsdUsed to perform certain command line debugging tasks.
OcsetupThis command starts the Windows Optional Component Setup tool, used to install additional Windows features.
OpenfilesUsed to display and disconnect open files and folders on a system.
PathUsed to display or set a specific path available to executable files.
PathpingFunctions much like the tracert command, will also report information about network latency and loss at each hop.
PauseUsed within a batch or script file to pause the processing of the file.
PentntUsed to detect floating point division errors in the Intel Pentium chip.
PingThe command sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request message to a specified remote computer to verify IP-level connectivity.
PkgmgrUsed to start the Windows Package Manager from the Command Prompt.
PnpunattendUsed to automate the installation of hardware device drivers.
PnputilUsed to start the Microsoft PnP Utility, a tool used to install a Plug and Play device from the command line.
PopdThis command is used to change the current directory to the one most recently stored by the pushd command.
PowerUsed to reduce the power consumed by a computer by monitoring software and hardware devices.
PowercfgUsed to manage the Windows power management settings from the command line.
PrintUsed to print a specified text file to a specified printing device.
PromptUsed to customize the appearance of the prompt text in Command Prompt or MS-DOS.
PushdUsed to store a directory for use, most commonly from within a batch or script program.
PwlauncherUsed to enable, disable, or show the status of your Windows To Go start-up options.
QappsrvUsed to display all Remote Desktop Session Host servers available on the network.
QbasicThis command starts QBasic, the MS-DOS based programming environment for the BASIC programming language.
QprocessUsed to display information about running processes.
QueryUsed to display the status of a specified service.
QuserUsed to display information about users currently logged on to the system.
QwinstaUsed to display information about open Remote Desktop Sessions.
RasautouUsed to manage Remote Access Dialer AutoDial addresses.
RasdialUsed to start or end a network connection for a Microsoft client.
RcpUsed to copy files between a Windows computer and a system running the rshd daemon.
RdShorthand version of the rmdir command.
RdpsignUsed to sign a Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) file.
ReagentcUsed to configure the Windows Recovery Environment (RE).
RecimgUsed to create a custom refresh image.
RecoverUsed to recover readable data from a bad or defective disk.
RegUsed to manage the Windows Registryfrom the command line.
ReginiUsed to set or change registry permissions and registry values from the command line.
Register-cimproviderUsed to register a Common Information Model (CIM) Provider in Windows.
Regsvr32Used to register a DLL file as a command component in the Windows Registry.
RelogUsed to create new performance logs from data in existing performance logs.
RemUsed to record comments or remarks in a batch or script file.
RenThe shorthand version of the rename command.
RenameUsed to change the name of the individual file that you specify.
Repair-bdeUsed to repair or decrypt a damaged drive that’s been encrypted using BitLocker.
ReplaceUsed to replace one or more files with one or more other files.
ResetThis command, executed as reset session, is used to reset the session subsystem software and hardware to known initial values.
RestoreUsed to restore files that were backed up using the backup command.
RexecUsed to run commands on remote computers running the rexec daemon.
RmdirUsed to delete an existing or completely empty folder.
RobocopyUsed to copy files and directories from one location to another.
RouteUsed to manipulate network routing tables.
RpcinfoThis command makes a remote procedure call (RPC) to an RPC server and reports what it finds.
RpcpingUsed to ping a server using RPC.
RshUsed to run commands on remote computers running the rsh daemon.
RsmUsed to manage media resources using Removable Storage.
RunasUsed to execute a program using another user’s credentials.
RwinstaShorthand version of the reset session command.
ScUsed to configure information about services.
ScandiskUsed to start Microsoft ScanDisk, a disk repair program.
ScanregThis command starts Windows Registry Checker, a basic registry repair program and backup utility.
SchtasksUsed to schedule specified programs or commands to run a certain times.
SdbinstUsed to deploy customized SDB database files.
SeceditUsed to configure and analyze system security by comparing the current security configuration to a template.
SetUsed to display, enable, or disable environment variables in MS-DOS or from the Command Prompt.
SetlocalUsed to start the localization of environment changes inside a batch or script file.
SetspnUsed to manage the Service Principal Names (SPN) for an Active Directory (AD) service account.
SetverUsed to set the MS-DOS version number that MS-DOS reports to a program.
SetxUsed to create or change environment variables in the user environment or the system environment.
SfcUsed to verify and replace important Windows system files.
ShadowUsed to monitor another Remote Desktop Services session.
ShareUsed to install file locking and file sharing functions in MS-DOS.
ShiftUsed to change the position of replaceable parameters in a batch or script file.
ShowmountUsed to display information about NFS mounted file systems.
ShutdownUsed to shut down, restart, or log off the current system or a remote computer.
SmartdrvThis command installs and configures SMARTDrive, a disk caching utility for MS-DOS.
SortUsed to read data from a specified input, sort that data, and return the results of that sort to the Command Prompt screen, a file, or another output device.
StartUsed to open a new command line window to run a specified program or command.
SubstUsed to associate a local path with a drive letter.
SxstraceUsed to start the WinSxs Tracing Utility, a  programming diagnostic tool.
SysUsed to copy the MS-DOS system files and command interpreter to a disk.
SysteminfoUsed to display basic Windows configuration information for the local or a remote computer.
TakeownUsed to regain access to a file that that an administrator was denied access to when reassigning ownership of the file.
TaskkillUsed to terminate a running task.
TasklistDisplays a list of applications, services, and the Process ID (PID) currently running on either a local or a remote computer.
TcmsetupUsed to setup or disable the Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) client.
TelnetUsed to communicate with remote computers that use the Telnet protocol.
TftpUsed to transfer files to and from a remote computer that’s running the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) service or daemon.
TimeUsed to show or change the current time.
TimeoutUsed in a batch or script file to provide a specified timeout value during a procedure.
TitleUsed to set the Command Prompt window title.
TlntadmnUsed to administer a local or remote computer running Telnet Server.
TpmvscmgrUsed to create and destroy TPM virtual smart cards.
TracerptUsed to process event trace logs or real-time data from instrumented event trace providers.
TracertThis command sends Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to a specified remote computer with increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values and displays the IP address and hostname, of the router interfaces between the source and destination.
TreeUsed to graphically display the folder structure of a specified drive or path.
TsconUsed to attach a user session to a Remote Desktop session.
TsdisconUsed to disconnect a Remote Desktop session.
TskillUsed to end the specified process.
TsshutdnUsed to remotely shut down or restart a terminal server.
TypeUsed to display the information contained in a text file.
TypeperfThis command displays performance data in the Command Prompt window or writes the data to specified log file.
TzutilUsed to display or configure the current system’s time zone.
UmountUsed to remove Network File System (NFS) mounted network shares.
UndeleteUsed to undo a deletion performed with the MS-DOS delete command.
UnformatUsed to undo the formatting on a drive performed by the MS-DOS format command.
UnlockUsed to unlock a drive, disabling direct disk access for a program.
UnlodctrRemoves Explain text and Performance counter names for a service or device driver from the Windows Registry.
VaultcmdUsed to create, remove, and show stored credentials.
VerUsed to display the current Windows or MS-DOS version number.
VerifyUsed to enable or disable the ability of Command Prompt, or MS-DOS, to verify that files are written correctly to a disk.
VolShows the volume label and serial number of a specified disk, assuming this information exists.
VsafeUsed to start VSafe, a basic virus protection system for MS-DOS.
VssadminThis command starts the Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command line tool which displays current volume shadow copy backups and all installed shadow copy writers and providers.
W32tmUsed to diagnose issues with Windows Time.
WaitforUsed to send or wait for a signal on a system.
WbadminUsed start and stop backup jobs, display details about a previous backup, list the items within a backup, and report on the status of a currently running backup.
WecutilUsed to manage subscriptions to events that are forwarded from WS-Management supported computers.
WevtutilThis command starts the Windows Events Command Line Utility which is used to manage event logs and publishers.
WhereUsed to search for files that match a specified pattern.
WhoamiUsed to retrieve user name and group information on a network.
WinmgmtStarts the command line version of WMI, a scripting tool in Windows.
WinrmUsed to start the command line version of Windows Remote Management, used to manage secure communications with local and remote computers using web services.
WinrsUsed to open a secure command window with a remote host.
WinsatStarts the Windows System Assessment Tool, a program that assesses various features, attributes, and capabilities of a computer running Windows.
WmicStarts the Windows Management Instrumentation Command line (WMIC), a scripting interface that simplifies the use of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) and systems managed via WMI.
WsmanhttpconfigUsed to manage aspects of the Windows Remote Management (WinRM) service.
XcopyUsed to copy one or more files or directory trees from one location to another. The xcopy command is generally considered a more “powerful” version of the copy command though the robocopy command trumps even xcopy.
XwizardThis command, short for Extensible Wizard, is used to register data in Windows, often from a preconfigured XML file.

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how to change folders colours in windows

            Change folder colors in Windows




BY SUNILKUMAR CHOUDARI

Ever get tired seeing a sea of yellow folders on your machine ? Whether you like different colors, folder organization or just plain customization, there would have come a time when you would’ve gotten bored with the monotonous nature of the windows explorer. Mac OS fortunately allows its users to make changes to folders, but Windows lacks it. Fortunately for us though, we live in the internet age. So when users asked for a way to change folder colors and style, Microsoft may not have heard, but quite a few other people did. Quite a few software now exist, that will let you change the color and style of the folder icons. Today, we show you one of these – Folderico.


First thing you’ll need, is the software itself. You can download it from the following   Once downloaded, unzip the file. Once it is installed successfully. Click on Finish Button then go to Folderico folder and double click on folderico.exe file.

Small one to see but how its works in your computer.

In a computer, a jumper is a pair of prongs that are electrical contact points set into the computer motherboard or an adapter card . When you set a jumper, you place a plug on the prongs that completes a contact.



In effect, the jumper acts as a switch by closing (or opening) an electrical circuit. Jumpers can be added or removed to change the function or performance of a PC component. A group of jumpers is sometimes called a jumper block .



The plug and play initiative was designed so that users did not have to deal with jumpers. Today, computers come with preset jumpers, although some manufacturers provide jumper settings in the instruction manual so that the owner can reset the jumpers if they want to customize performance.



In electronic test equipment, a jumper cable is used to make a temporary contact between two points for the purpose of testing a circuit

-sunilkumar choudari

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Spam messages with suspicious link detection feature in whatsapp.

Spam messages with suspicious link detection feature in whatsapp.
This new feature in Whatstapp is very dangerous!

Whatsapp Suspicious link detection

Particularly in Watsup, many dangerous links are circular today. Clicking on them will be in danger. For instance, the F Big Bajar company is offering a shoping vocher worth of 5000 rupees in the case of 17th anniversary , and a message will be circular in Whatsapp. See how the official website link will be viewed, as well as the link looks the same way most people click on it blindly before thinking back.



It's also a phishing attack that will steal your personal information immediately. In many cases, the most popular type of business companies and websites are circled by many dangerous links via Whatsapp. The newly launched Suspicious Link Detection has been introduced to Watsup to prevent this. Whatsapp Beta 2.18.206 version is available for users who use it.




Whatsapp will now see each link that is shared by Whatsapp, and closely …