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WHAT IS KERNAL(OPERATING SYSTEM IN SYSTEMS) & DIFFERENT KIND OF KERNALS AND ITS FUNCTIONS.


WHAT IS KERNAL(OPERATING SYSTEM IN SYSTEMS)AND DIFFERENT KIND OF KERNALS AND ITS FUNCTIONS.

-BY SUNILKUMAR CHOUDARI


A kernel is the core component of an operating system. Using interprocess communication and system calls, it acts as a bridge between applications and the data processing performed at the hardware level.

When an operating system is loaded into memory, the kernel loads first and remains in memory until the operating system is shut down again. The kernel is responsible for low-level tasks such as disk management, task management and memory management.

A computer kernel interfaces between the three major computer hardware components, providing services between the application/user interface and the CPU, memory and other hardware I/O devices.

The kernel provides and manages computer resources, allowing other programs to run and use these resources. The kernel also sets up memory address space for applications, loads files with application code into memory, sets up the execution stack for programs and branches out to particular locations inside programs for execution.

The kernel is responsible for:


  • Process management for application execution
  • Memory management, allocation and I/O
  • Device management through the use of device drivers
  • System call control, which is essential for the execution of kernel services

There are five types of kernels:

  1. Monolithic Kernels: All operating system services run along the main kernel thread in a monolithic kernel, which also resides in the same memory area, thereby providing powerful and rich hardware access.
  2. Microkernels: Define a simple abstraction over hardware that use primitives or system calls to implement minimum OS services such as multitasking, memory management and interprocess communication.
  3. Hybrid Kernels: Run a few services in the kernel space to reduce the performance overhead of traditional microkernels where the kernel code is still run as a server in the user space.
  4. Nano Kernels: Simplify the memory requirement by delegating services, including the basic ones like interrupt controllers or timers to device drivers.
  5. Exo Kernels: Allocate physical hardware resources such as processor time and disk block to other programs, which can link to library operating systems that use the kernel to simulate operating system abstractions.

FUNCTIONS OF THE KERNAL


The central processing unit (CPU)
This central component of a computer system is responsible for running or executing programs. The kernel takes responsibility for deciding at any time which of the many running programs should be allocated to the processor or processors (each of which can usually run only one program at a time).

Random-access memory (RAM)

Random-access memory is used to store both program instructions and data. Typically, both need to be present in memory in order for a program to execute. Often multiple programs will want access to memory, frequently demanding more memory than the computer has available. The kernel is responsible for deciding which memory each process can use, and determining what to do when not enough memory is available.

Input/output (I/O) devices

I/O devices include such peripherals as keyboards, mice, disk drives, printers, USB devices, network adapters, and display devices. The kernel allocates requests from applications to perform I/O to an appropriate device and provides convenient methods for using the device (typically abstracted to the point where the application does not need to know implementation details of the device).
Key aspects necessary in resource management are the definition of an execution domain (address space) and the protection mechanism used to mediate the accesses to the resources within a domain.
Kernels also usually provide methods for synchronization and communication between processes called inter-process communication (IPC).
A kernel may implement these features itself, or rely on some of the processes it runs to provide the facilities to other processes, although in this case it must provide some means of IPC to allow processes to access the facilities provided by each other.
Finally, a kernel must provide running programs with a method to make requests to access these facilities.

ABOUT AUTHOR-
-SUNILKUMAR.CHOUDARI



Also Read

how to change folders colours in windows

            Change folder colors in Windows




BY SUNILKUMAR CHOUDARI

Ever get tired seeing a sea of yellow folders on your machine ? Whether you like different colors, folder organization or just plain customization, there would have come a time when you would’ve gotten bored with the monotonous nature of the windows explorer. Mac OS fortunately allows its users to make changes to folders, but Windows lacks it. Fortunately for us though, we live in the internet age. So when users asked for a way to change folder colors and style, Microsoft may not have heard, but quite a few other people did. Quite a few software now exist, that will let you change the color and style of the folder icons. Today, we show you one of these – Folderico.


First thing you’ll need, is the software itself. You can download it from the following   Once downloaded, unzip the file. Once it is installed successfully. Click on Finish Button then go to Folderico folder and double click on folderico.exe file.

Small one to see but how its works in your computer.

In a computer, a jumper is a pair of prongs that are electrical contact points set into the computer motherboard or an adapter card . When you set a jumper, you place a plug on the prongs that completes a contact.



In effect, the jumper acts as a switch by closing (or opening) an electrical circuit. Jumpers can be added or removed to change the function or performance of a PC component. A group of jumpers is sometimes called a jumper block .



The plug and play initiative was designed so that users did not have to deal with jumpers. Today, computers come with preset jumpers, although some manufacturers provide jumper settings in the instruction manual so that the owner can reset the jumpers if they want to customize performance.



In electronic test equipment, a jumper cable is used to make a temporary contact between two points for the purpose of testing a circuit

-sunilkumar choudari

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Spam messages with suspicious link detection feature in whatsapp.

Spam messages with suspicious link detection feature in whatsapp.
This new feature in Whatstapp is very dangerous!

Whatsapp Suspicious link detection

Particularly in Watsup, many dangerous links are circular today. Clicking on them will be in danger. For instance, the F Big Bajar company is offering a shoping vocher worth of 5000 rupees in the case of 17th anniversary , and a message will be circular in Whatsapp. See how the official website link will be viewed, as well as the link looks the same way most people click on it blindly before thinking back.



It's also a phishing attack that will steal your personal information immediately. In many cases, the most popular type of business companies and websites are circled by many dangerous links via Whatsapp. The newly launched Suspicious Link Detection has been introduced to Watsup to prevent this. Whatsapp Beta 2.18.206 version is available for users who use it.




Whatsapp will now see each link that is shared by Whatsapp, and closely …