WHAT IS KALI LINUX?
-by sunilkumar choudari
Kali Linux is an OS that hacker choice first. Well, Linux is an open source operating system in which Kali Linux functions when it is installed on a computer’s hard disc but you require a minimum of 20GB hard disk space to install in on your computer, it can also be booted by using a CD or USB. Kali Linux is a supported platform of the Metasploit Project’s Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing security exploits.
Linux has a custom-built kernel that is patched for 802.11 wireless injections. This was added because the developers found out that they needed to do a lot of wireless assessments. Kali Linux is available for many devices such as BeagleBone Black, EfikaMX, HP Chromebook, CuBox, CuBox-i, Odroid U2, Odroid XU, Odroid XU3, Samsung Chromebook, Galaxy Note 10.1, CubieBoard 2, Raspberry Pi, Utilite Pro, and SS808.
As Kali NetHunter is introduced, Kali Linux is also officially available on many devices such as the Nexus 5, Nexus 7, Nexus 9, Nexus 10, OnePlus One, and Samsung Galaxy models. For using the Kali Linux, you must know the Linux commands. If you do not know the Kali Linux commands thoroughly, you will end up strangled in one particular place. Hence, here we are going to provide you with the most commonly used commands and also, explain what they will do for you. The list of these commands is very long so let’s get started without wasting any more time.
CommandFunctionsapropos Search Help manual pages (man -k) apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian) aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian) aspell Spell Checker awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/indexbasename Strip directory and suffix from filenames bash GNU Bourne-Again Shell bc Arbitrary precision calculator language bg Send to background break Exit from a loop builtin Run a shell builtin bzip2 Compress or decompress named files cal Display a calendar case Conditionally perform a command cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files cd Change Directory cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux chgrp Change group ownership chkconfig System services (runlevel) chmod Change access permissions chown Change file owner and group chroot Run a command with a different root directory cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts clear Clear terminal screen cmp Compare two files comm Compare two sorted files line by line command Run a command – ignoring shell functions continue Resume the next iteration of a loop cp Copy one or more files to another location cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces cut Divide a file into several parts date Display or change the date and time dc Desk Calculator dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records ddrescue Data recovery tool declare Declare variables and give them attributes df Display free disk space diff Display the differences between two files diff3 Show differences among three files dig DNS lookup dir Briefly list directory contents dircolors Colour setup for `ls’ dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path dirs Display list of remembered directories dmesg Print kernel & driver messages du Estimate file space usage echo Display message on screen egrep Search files for lines that match an extended expression eject Eject removable media enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands env Environment variables ethtool Ethernet card settings eval Evaluate several commands/arguments exec Execute a command exit Exit the shell expand Convert tabs to spaces expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal export Set an environment variable expr Evaluate expressions fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux fg Send job to foreground fgrep Search files for lines that match a fixed string file Determine file type find Search for files that meet a desired criteria fmt Reformat paragraph text fold Wrap text to fit a specified width for Expand words, and execute commands format Format disks or tapes free Display memory usage fsck File system consistency check and repair ftp File Transfer Protocol function Define Function Macros fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a filegawk Find and Replace text within files getopts Parse positional parameters grep Search files for lines that match a given pattern groupadd Add a user security group groupdel Delete a group groupmod Modify a group groups Print group names a user is in gzip Compress or decompress named fileshash Remember the full pathname of a name argument head Output the first part of files help Display help for a built-in command history Command History hostname Print or set system name iconv Convert the character set of a file id Print user and group id’s if Conditionally perform a command ifconfig Configure a network interface ifdown Stop a network interface ifup Start a network interface up import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file install Copy files and set attributesjobs List active jobs join Join lines on a common field kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name less Display output one screen at a time let Perform arithmetic on shell variables ln Create a symbolic link to a file local Create variableslocate Find files logname Print current login name logout Exit a login shell look Display lines beginning with a given string lpc Line printer control program lpr Off line print lprint Print a file lprintd Abort a print job lprintq List the print queue lprm Remove jobs from the print queue ls List information about files lsof List open files make Recompile a group of programs man Help manual mkdir Create new folders mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes) mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem mknod Make block or character special files mmv Mass Move and rename files more Display output one screen at a time mount Mount a file system mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping) mv Move or rename files or directories netstat Networking information nice Set the priority of a command or job nl Number lines and write files nohup Run a command immune to hangups notify-send Send desktop notifications nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively op Operator access open Open a file in its default application passwd Modify a user password paste Merge lines of files pathchk Check file name portability ping Test a network connection pkill Stop processes from running popd Restore the previous value of the current directory pr Prepare files for printing printcap Printer capability database printenv Print environment variables printf Format and print data ps Process status pushd Save and then change the current directory pwd Print Working Directory quota Display disk usage and limits quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage quotactl Set disk quotas ram ram disk device rcp Copy files between two machines read Read a line from standard input readarray Read from stdin into an array variable readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly reboot Reboot the system remsync Synchronize remote files via email rename Rename files renice Alter priority of running processes return Exit a shell function rev Reverse lines of a file rm Remove files rmdir Remove folders rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees) scp Secure copy (remote file copy) screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh sdiff Merge two files interactively sed Stream Editor select Accept keyboard input seq Print numeric sequences set Manipulate shell variables and functions sftp Secure File Transfer Program shift Shift positional parameters shopt Shell Options shutdown Shutdown or restart linux sleep Delay for a specified time slocate Find files sort Sort text files source Run commands from a file split Split a file into fixed-size pieces ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program) strace Trace system calls and signals su Substitute user identity sudo Execute a command as another user sum Print a checksum for a file suspend Suspend execution of this shell symlink Make a new name for a file sync Synchronize data on disk with memory tail Output the last part of file tar Tape Archiver tee Redirect output to multiple files test Evaluate a conditional expression time Measure Program running time times User and system times top List processes running on the system touch Change file timestamps tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters